Epstein, Steven. Impure Science: AIDS, Activism, and the Politics of Knowledge. University of California Press, 1996. 

France, David. How To Survive a Plague: The Inside Story of How Citizens and Science Tamed AIDS. Alfred A. Knopf, 2016. 

Goozner, Merrill. The $800 Million Pill: The Truth Behind the Cost of New Drugs. University of California Press, 2004. 

Hawthorne, Fran. The Merck Druggernaut: The Inside Story of a Pharmaceutical Giant. Wiley & Sons, 2003. 

Schulman, Sarah. Let the Record Show: A Political History of ACT UP New York, 1987-1993. Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2021.


“Active human immunodeficiency virus protease is required for viral infectivity,” PNAS, Jul. 1988. 

“Dr. Irving Sigal, Molecular Biologist, 35,” New York Times, Dec. 25, 1988. 

“NCI Team Remodels Key AIDS Virus Enzyme,” Science, Aug. 11, 1989. 

“AIDS Ashes strewn at White House,” San Francisco Examiner, Oct. 12, 1992. 

“Robert Rafsky, 47, Media Coordinator for AIDS Protesters,” New York Times, Feb. 23, 1993. 

“Early AZT Takes a Pounding in French-British ‘Concorde’ Trial,” Science, Apr. 9, 1993. 

“Protesters Hold Capitol Funeral With Corpse of AIDS Victim,” Washington Post, Jul. 2, 1993. 

“Program Synopsis: Tim Bailey Political Funeral,” AIDS Community Television/ACT UP NY, Jul. 6, 1993. 

“From the Ninth International AIDS Conference. Berlin, Germany, June 6-11, 1993,” Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology, Aug. 1993. 

“Michael Callen, Singer and Expert On Coping With AIDS,” Dies at 38,” New York Times, Dec. 29, 1993. 

“Heterosexually Acquired AIDS—United States, 1993,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Mar. 11, 1994. 

“Concorde: MRC/ANRS randomised double-blind controlled trial of immediate and deferred zidovudine in symptom-free HIV infection. Concorde Coordinating Committee,” Lancet, Apr. 9, 1994. 

“Aids Among Racial/Ethnic Minorities—United States, 1993,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Sep. 9, 1994. 

“New AIDS drug won’t be ready until mid-1995,” Johnson City Press, Sep. 13, 1994.

“TAG, ACT UP in Hot Fax War,” POZ, Oct. 1, 1994. 

“HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report: Year-end Edition,” CDC, Dec. 1994. 

“History and the Discovery and Development of Crixivan,” Merck & Co., 1996. 

“3-Drug Therapy Shows Promise Against AIDS,” New York Times, Jan. 30, 1996. 

“Three-Drug Treatment Shows Promise in Suppressing AIDS Virus,” Washington Post, Jan. 30, 1996. 

“8 years and $700 million later, how a better drug was found,” Philadelphia Inquirer, Mar. 17, 1996. 

“A Victory in AIDS War,” Chicago Tribune, Apr. 11, 1996. 

“Treatment of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection With Saquinavir, Zidovudine, and Zalcitabine,” New England Journal of Medicine, Apr. 18, 1996. 

“Protease Inhibitors: A Tale of Two Companies,” Science, Jun. 28, 1996. 

“Powerful Response Reported In a Combined AIDS Therapy,” New York Times, Jul. 11, 1996. 

“Studies of Combined HIV Drugs Promising,” Los Angeles Times, Jul. 12, 1996. 

“Cocktail Hour,” Washington Post, May 18, 1997. 

“Treatment with indinavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine in adults with human immunodeficiency virus infection and prior antiretroviral therapy,” New England Journal of Medicine, Sep. 11, 1997. 

“New AIDS Hope Also Brings New Challenges,” Los Angeles Times, Feb. 8, 1998. 

“Attacking AIDS with a ‘Cocktail’ Therapy,” The Body, Aug. 1, 1999. 

“Ten Texts on Saquinavir: Its Rapid Rise & Fall,” Treatment Action Group, Jun. 2001. 

“HIV and AIDS—United States, 1981-2000,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, Jun. 1, 2001. 

“Association of Medical Insurance and Other Factors With Receipt of Antiretroviral Therapy,” American Journal of Public Health, May 2002. 

“Interviewee: Joy Episalla,” ACT UP Oral History Project, Dec. 6, 2003. 

“Interview: David Ho,” Frontline, May 30, 2006. “St. Vincent’s Remembered,” Out, Aug. 17, 2010. 

“The Beginnings: Laboratory and Animal Studies,” U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Apr. 27, 2015. 

“Oral history interview with Joy Episalla, 2016,” Smithsonian Archives of American Art, Feb. 23 & Mar. 17, 2016. 

“Keeping Up with HIV Mutations,” Harvard Medical School News & Research, Sep. 8, 2016. 

“Baillie Gifford winner David France on his AIDS memoir: ‘None of us thought we’d get out alive,” The Guardian, Nov. 17, 2017. 

“The Discovery of HIV-1,” Nature, Nov. 28, 2018. 

“The History of FDA’s Role in Preventing the Spread of HIV/AIDS,” U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Mar. 14, 2019. 

“On the 25th Anniversary of the HIV Treatment Revolution, Folks Remember ‘Their’ 1996,” The Body, Dec. 31, 2021.

Credit song

Fiasco Season 5 theme song by Spatial Relations.

Credits song: Philosophers by Peter Sandberg.

Original music for this series written by Edith Mudge. Additional music by Nick Slyvester of Godmode, Joel St. Julien and and Dan English, Noah Hecht, and Joe Valle.