Kenney, Dennis Jay. Crime, Fear, and the New York City Subway: The Role of Citizen Action. Praeger, 1987.

Lesly, Mark; Shuttleworth, Charles. Subway Gunman: A Juror’s Account of the Bernhard Goetz Trial. British American Publishing, 1988.

Rubin, Lillian B. Quiet Rage: Bernie Goetz in a Time of Madness. Farrar, Straus, & Giroux, 1988.


Deadly Deterrent,” Newsweek, Aug. 26, 1974.

“Eye Plan to Save Street Cops,” New York Daily News, Jun. 12, 1975.

“Brass Seeking Cops Who Slurred Mayor,” New York Daily News, Jun. 15, 1975.

“City Unions Join To Fight Layoffs,” New York Times, Jul. 11, 1975.

“Ford to City: Drop Dead,” New York Daily News, Oct. 30, 1975.

“Koch Wins Apple’s Big Plum,” New York Daily News, Nov. 9, 1977.

“District census tidbits,” Indiana Gazette, Jan. 18, 1980.

“There’s no help on the way,” New York Daily News, Jul. 22, 1980.

“Trouble with ‘Angels’ at Gracie Mansion,” New York Daily News, Sep. 15, 1980.

“‘Guardians’ Proposal Draws TA Cops’ Fire,” Newsday, Oct. 18, 1980.

“Riding the midnight rails with the Guardian Angels,” New York Daily News, Oct. 31, 1980.

“Youths Stealing Subway Tokens by Sucking on Turnstile Slots,” New York Times, Feb. 7, 1983.

“For 2d Straight Year, City Shows a Drop in Reports of Major Crime,” New York Times, Mar. 1, 1984.

“Crime Rises and Ridership Drops For New York City Subway System,” New York Times, May 8, 1984.

“2,004 new city cops step into the ranks,” New York Daily News, Dec. 18, 1984.

“A Gunman Wounds 4 on IRT Train, Then Escapes,” New York Times, Dec. 23, 1984.

“Subway rider shoots toughs,” New York Daily News, Dec. 23, 1984.

“1,350 cops join subway patrol,” New York Daily News, Dec. 24, 1984.

“City Strengthens Subway Patrols,” New York Times, Dec. 24, 1984.

“They’d Give Him A Medal,” New York Daily News, Dec. 25, 1984.

“It’s West Side Story,” New York Daily News, Dec. 25, 1984.

“Vigilante a W. Side story,” New York Daily News, Dec. 25, 1984.

“IRT victim in coma,” New York Daily News, Jan. 10, 1985.

“Crime on the Subways: Measuring the Effectiveness of the Guardian Angels,” Justice Quarterly, Dec. 1986.

“The Media and Fear of Crime: A Survey of the Research,” University of Florida Journal of Law & Public Policy, 1997.

“What Reduced Crime in New York City,” NBER, Jan. 2003.

“TUNNEL VISION; The Kiss of Desperation: A Disgusting Practice Vanishes With the Token,” New York Times, Apr. 8, 2003.

“‘A Liberal Is Someone Who Has Not Been Mugged’: Criminal Victimization and Political Beliefs,” Justice Quarterly, May 14, 2007.

“How New York won the war on crime,” Chicago Tribune, Nov. 13, 2011.

“What Caused the Great Crime Decline in the U.S.?” The Atlantic, Apr. 15, 2016.

“‘Keep an Eye on This Guy’: Inside Eric Adams’s Complicated Police Career,” New York Times, Jn. 19, 2021.

“The early history of the Guardian Angels and their controversial New York City subway patrols,” Daily News, Aug. 14, 2017.

“‘Curtis, He’s Just Head-Butting People,’” New York, Aug. 28, 2021.

“Woman Dies After Being Pushed Onto Subway Tracks in Times Square,” New York Times, Jan. 15, 2022.

“Most NYC residents say city is less safe since pandemic, fear being victim of violent crime,” Fox News, Jun. 7, 2022.

“Eric Adams patrols subways with NYPD cops amid surge in transit crime,” New York Post, Jun. 27, 2022.

“Man randomly pushed into subway tracks in Brooklyn, police say,” CBS New York, Oct. 21, 2022.

“Fear of Crime Looms Large for Voters, to Republicans’ Advantage,” New York Times, Nov. 3, 2022.

“Straphanger robbed by trio who cut his pockets on NYC subway: cops,” New York Post, Dec. 18, 2022.

“Frank James to Plead Guilty to Terror Counts in Brooklyn Subway Shooting,” New York Times, Dec. 21, 2022.

“Overall crime in NYC is up 23.5% this year, but shootings and homicides are down, NYPD says,” CNN, Dec. 21, 2022.

“Swedish tourists robbed at NYC subway station on Christmas,” New York Post, Dec. 25, 2022.

“Major Crimes Rose 22 Percent in New York City, Even as Shootings Fell,” New York Times, Jan. 5, 2023.


Tokens and Slugs. Permanent collection; New York Transit Museum, New York.